The new

After more than a year of off-and-off work, we've finally gone live with the new Take a look: you can browse and search for CRAN packages and get clear information on whether Renjin can run the package.

In designing the repository and Renjin's package loading mechanisms, we've stayed pretty faithful to the way GNU R works, but we have made some subtle changes to address a few pain points with the current system. I wanted to outline a few of our goals and describe how we've tried to address them with Renjin and

New package releases should never break other packages

Right now, GNU R's out of the box behavior is always to download the latest version of all packages, and the latest version of all packages on which those packages might depend.

Jeroen Ooms did a great write up of this problem, and cites an incident where a new version of ggplot2 was released, and suddenly all of the hundreds of packages were forced to interact with a different version of ggplot2 than that which they had been tested against. Confusion and chaos ensued, and ggplot2 0.9.0 had to be rolled back.

There's no reason this has to happen: other package ecosystems like Java's and particuarly NPM are good models that demonstrate how complex networks of dependencies can be handled.

The first thing that has to happen is that package authors need to version their dependencies, which is a way of saying not just that the package has been developed and tested against ggplot2, but ggplot2 0.8.3.

Because most package authors don't provide the versions of the packages on which they depend, we've built a database of all CRAN package versions dating back to 2001, and pinned each dependency version based on publication dates.

The second thing that's important is that multiple versions of a package are able to co-exist side by side. You might want to use the latest and greatest version of ggplot2 when starting a new project, but if you're using an older package that depends on an earlier version of ggplot2, or you're rerunning your own analysis from six months ago, you'll want the older version of ggplot2.

The Packrat project has recently made this a lot easier to do with GNU R, but Renjin supports this out of the box. Each interpreter session can reference its own version of dependencies, and Renjin maintains a local cache of dependencies, with different versions of packages stored side by side.

R packages should be useable on any platform without heartache

I've often wrestled with this in my own work, especially using R's fantastic geostatistical packages, which depend on several native packages like gdal and geos, which in turn (often) need to be compiled from source, and have numerous compile switches. I've found it very hard to return to an analysis making extensive use of these libraries six months later!

One decision we've made with Renjin is to focus on compiling the native C and Fortran code present in some CRAN packages to JVM bytecode rather than building an integration based on calling out of the JVM and into native binaries.

The downside is that it will be awhile before I get to use my favorite geostatistical packages with Renjin, because our compiler can't handle C code as complex as gdal yet.

The upside is that a package once built for Renjin encapsulates all of its dependencies, and can be effortlessly used on any platform: Linux, Mac OS X, Windows, wherever there's a JVM available, and you'll never have to spend a sleepless night trying to get a Fortran compiler to build on some random version of Solaris on your client's backoffice system so you can for the love of god please just get randomForest running!!

Package naming and loading should support any repository, not just CRAN

CRAN is no longer the only game in town when it comes to R packages. BioConductor of course supports an equally impressive library, and more and more R packages are being hosted exclusively on GitHub.

With this growth, identifying a package only by a single name like survey starts to become problematic. Is that the survey package from CRAN or the one on that guy's GitHub account, or ACME's internal fork?

In JVM land, packages are qualified with a 'groupId' that helps disambiguate libraries with the same simple name. The convention is to use a domain name that you control, to ensure that groupId's don't collide.

When we implemented package loading in Renjin, we tweaked the mechanism a bit compared to GNU R to support fully qualified package names.

Following this convention, for example, we use the groupId org.renjin.cran for CRAN packages because we don't control org.r-project.cran.

If you wanted to build and distribute your own package, you could use use your personal domain as a groupId, or a subdomain that you control, such as com.github.akbertram.

When you call the library function, you should use the fully-qualified name, for example, library("com.github.akbertram.myPackage") but if you leave off the groupId, Renjin will assume that you mean a CRAN package and look for org.renjin.cran.myPackage.

R Packages should seamlessly integrate with Java Projects

We want those developing in Java, Scala, Clojure, JRuby, or another JVM-hosted language to be able to depend on R packages in the same way they would on any other JVM library. Renjin compiles R packages into a Java Archive (.jar) that can be included in any project.

For a Maven project, you can include the package as a library by adding a dependency to your pom.xml file:


Or pull the same package into a Gradle project:

dependencies {
   compile 'org.renjin.cran:survey:1.3-37-b203' 

repositories {
   maven { url '' }

The scicom project goes even further by providing fluent access to R functions and data structures in JRuby, via Renjin.

A unique package version should always refer to the same binary, bit for bit

Source code is not the only thing that determines the behavior of a package. Whenever a package involves native code, the resulting binary depends on the configuration used to build the package, the compiler used, and the versions of standard and specialized libraries present on the system where the package was compiled.

For this reason, when a CRAN package is built through the Renjin pipeline, the resulting archive is given a version that includes both the version number and the build number.

So if you reference org.renjin.cran:survey:3.30-3-b227 in your application's pom.xml file, you can be sure that you six months from now, ten years from now, you can run exactly the same code on a completely different operating system and get the same results.

Enterprises should be able to manage R package dependencies with existing, best-in-class tools

Because Renjin organizes R packages using the same conventions as Maven, Ant, and Ivy, enterprises who strictly manage dependencies with tools like Sonatype Nexus, Artifactory, or Apache Archiva can extend these policies and benefits to R development as well.

These artifact repositories allow organizations to set, enforce, and audit policies concerning the use of dependencies within an organization.

Read more at Renjin's blog or subscribe to the blog's RSS feed.

Bring the Power of R
to Java

Ready to get started?

Quick start with Java Join our mailing list